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阅读选择题答题技巧总结分享

发布时间:2018年02月27日来源:转载作者:施强留学编辑:施强留学我要提问

本文标签:雅思 阅读 英语 考试 雅思阅读

在雅思阅读考试中,选择题可以说是一个让考生倍感亲切的题型,因为在国内的各种英语考试中选择题占了相当大的比例。雅思阅读中选择题分为两类:单选题,即四选一;多选题,即选项数为5个以上,选出的答案为2个及以上的题目。对于多选题,题目要求中有明确的说明要选的正确答案有几个,并且每一个正确答案算一道题目。


一、出题特点
(1) 细节型题目。选择题除了位于题目末尾的全篇主旨题和title题考查考生对全文大意的理解外,主要考查的是考生对细节信息的定位和理解,也就是说,考生根据题干信息在原文中找到相关信息,只要精读该部分信息即可确定答案。
(2) 顺序原则。选择题的题目基本遵循顺序原则,因此可以从最好定位的那道题入手,进而推出相邻题目的位置。
(3) 多选题答案相对集中。综观雅思阅读真题,不难发现绝大多数多选题的答案都是集中出现的,一般集中在几段之内,考生只要定位到一道题的答案,剩下的题目一定就在附近。因此多选题其实比单选题简单,基本上可以做到一次定位全部确定。
(4) 同义转换仍是考点。在选择题中,绝大多数选项和原文都存在着同义转换的关系,如surprised对应be taken aback, torepresent movement对应toshow motion, domestic buildings对应dwellings,shape对应round/square等,这便增加了选择的难度。
(5) 选项干扰性强。众所周知,做选择题的一个很重要的方法就是排除法,即排除干扰选项,但是这个排除的过程却不容易,很多考生常常在排除剩下的两个答案时,犹豫不决,很难做出正确的选择。
二、做题方法
Step 1.阅读题目要求,看是单选还是多选,如是多选,选几项,还要注意多选题的每一个正确选项占用一个题号,在誊写答题纸的时候要注意。
Step 2.阅读题干,标出定位词。对于定位词而言,考生应当首选形式上较为特殊的一些词,如专有名词(人名、地名等),时间/数字,特殊标点符号(如引号,连字符等),货币符号,长难单词,如果题干中并未出现以上特殊词汇,则选择题干中的名词/名词短语和动词。
例如剑四Test2Passage2 Alternativemedicine in Australia:
Question 14 and 15
Choose the correctletter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answersin boxes 14 and 15 on your answer sheet.
14.Traditionally,how have Australian doctors differed from doctors in many Western countries?
A. They have workedclosely with pharmaceutical companies.
B. They have oftenworked alongside other therapists.
C. They have beenreluctant to accept alternative therapists.
D. They haveregularly prescribed alternative remedies.
15. In 1990,Americans
A. were prescribedmore herbal medicines than in previous years.
B. consultedalternative therapists more often than doctors.
C. spent more onnatural therapies than orthodox medicines.
D. made morecomplaints about doctors than in previous years.
分析14题的题干,其定位词应为Australian doctors, differfrom, doctors in many Western countries, 通过定位词则很容易将这道题目定位到第一段第一句话。
15题的定位词则更明显,1990,Americans, 定位到文章第一段的最后一句话。
注:有时候题干中并没有出现定位词,则必须通过选项来定位。
如:According to the reading passage,which of the following is true? 像这样的题目只能通过从选项中挑出关键词然后去原文中定位。
Step 3.阅读选项,标出关键词。选项中的关键词即为选项所描述信息的主题,多为名词或名词性短语或动宾短语。例如上面的第15题,对于每个选项可标出如下关键词:
A. more herbalmedicines
B. consultedalternative therapists
C. spent more onnatural therapies
D. more complaints
Step 4.回原文读相关段落确定答案,正确答案常常是原文相关词句的同义改写。通过前两步标定位词和关键词可大致确定题目出自哪个段落,接下来就需要读原文某段或者某几句话,通过对比关键词和原文来确定答案。如上文中第14题,原文中的表达为…having a very conservative attitude to natural or alternative therapies, 通过conservativeattitude(保守的态度)一词可推出正确答案为C,对应reluctant(不情愿的)。
在做选择题时一个非常有效的方法就是排除法,即排除干扰选项来确定答案。那么排除干扰项的方法有哪些呢?
a. TWINS原则--与原文在用词选择上极为相近的选项通常是干扰项,一般可予以排除。
例如剑4Test1Passage3:
28. The writer wassurprised because the blind woman
A. drew a circle onher own initiative.
B. did notunderstand what a wheel look like.
C. included asymbol representing movement.
D. was the firstperson to use lines of motion.
定位原文为:
From a number ofrecent studies, it has become clear that blind people can appreciate the use ofoutlines and perspectives to describe the arrangement of objects and othersurfaces in space. But pictures are more than literal representations. Thisfact was drawn to my attention dramatically when a blind woman in one of myinvestigations decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel as it wasspinning. To show this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle (Fig. 1). Iwas taken aback. Lines of motion, such as the one she used, are a very recentinvention in the history of illustration. Indeed, as art scholar DavidKunzlenotes, Wilhelm Busch, a trend-setting nineteenth-century cartoonist, usedvirtually no motion lines in his popular figures until about 1877.
分析:A选项几乎与原文一样(…a blind woman….decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel), 但是往下读会发现,作者吃惊的原因并不是因为盲人妇女自己画了一个圈,而是因为为了显示这种运动,她又在圈里面画了一个曲线(toshow this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle)。正确选项C与原文形成同义转换:included—traced,representing—show, movement—motion. 此方法对于基础较为薄弱,对原文意思较难理解的同学比较适合,可以通过排除,提高正确选项的概率。
b. 含有太过绝对词语的选项通常是干扰项,一般可排除。
例如剑5Test 1Passage1:
WhichTHREE of the followingstatements aretrue of Johnson’s Dictionary?
A.It avoided all scholarly words.
B.It was the only English dictionary in general usefor 200 years.
C.It was famous because of the large number ofpeople involved.
D.It focused mainly on language from contemporary texts.
E.There was a time limit for its completion.
F.It ignored work done by previous dictionary writers.
G.It took into account subtleties of meaning.
H.Its definitions were famous for their originality.
分析:选项A和B中包含绝对词(all, the only), 因此是干扰选项的概率比较大,考生去原文中寻找并未发现此类绝对的描述,所以可以排除掉。

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